Psyllium is a type of fiber commonly used as a gentle, bulk-forming laxative.Being a soluble fiber, psyllium is able to pass through your digestive system without being completely broken down or absorbed.
It’s used as a dietary supplement and is usually found in the form of husk, granules, capsules or powder. However, it can also be obtained through fortified breakfast cereals and baked goods (2).
Because of its excellent water solubility, psyllium can absorb water and become a thick, viscous compound that resists digestion in the small intestine.
Its resistance to digestion allows it to help regulate high cholesterol, triglycerides and blood sugar levels. It can also aid weight management and relieve diarrhoea and constipation.
Psyllium can be found in various forms and has many health benefits.
Psyllium is used as a bulk-forming laxative. It works by increasing stool size and therefore helps relieve constipation
Initially, it works by binding to partially digested food that’s passing from the stomach into the small intestine.
moisture of stools. The end product is bigger and more easily passable stools moisture, total weight and texture of stools
Another study showed that taking 5.1 grams twice a day for two weeks significantly increased the water content and weight of stools, as well as the total number of bowel movements, in 170 individuals with chronic constipation
For these reasons, taking psyllium supplements promotes regularity.
2. It May Help Treat Diarrhoea
Psyllium has also been shown to relieve diarrhoea
It does this by acting as a water-absorbing agent, which can increase stool thickness and slow down its passage through the colon.
One study showed psyllium husk significantly decreased diarrhoea in 30 cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy induced diarrhoea with 3.5 grams, three times daily. Doing so increased their stomach emptying time from 69 to 87 minutes, which meant fewer bowel movements (15).
So psyllium can both prevent constipation and reduce diarrhoea, effectively helping to normalise your bowel movements if you are having problems.
Bottom Line: Psyllium can help treat diarrhoea by increasing stool size and slowing its passage through the intestinal tract.
3. It Can Lower Blood Sugar Levels
Fiber supplementation has been shown to control glycemic response to a meal and reduce insulin and blood sugar levels. This is particularly the case with water-soluble fibers like psyllium . This is because its gel-forming fibers can slow down the digestion of food, which helps regulate blood sugar levels for eight weeks. It reduced their daily blood sugar levels by 11% ,five grams consumed three times per day) for six weeks resulted in a 29% reduction in blood sugar levels within the first two weeks
Because psyllium is able to slow down the digestion of food, it’s recommended to take it with food, rather than on its own, so it has a greater effect on your blood sugar levels.
It seems that a daily dose of at least 10.2 grams can promote lower blood sugar levels
Bottom Line: Psyllium is able to delay food digestion, which helps regulate blood sugar levels. A daily dose of 10.2 grams ingested with meals appears to significantly affect blood sugar levels.
4. It May Boost Satiety and Aid Weight Loss
Scales, a Fork, a Knife and a Measuring Tape
Fibers like psyllium that form viscous compounds can help control appetite and aid weight loss
One study had 12 healthy participants consume 10.8 grams of psyllium immediately before a meal.
They experienced significantly delayed stomach emptying from the third hour after the meal and prolonged sensations of satiety six hours after the meal
Another study explored the effects of two, 20-gram doses in 17 healthy participants. One dose was consumed three hours before a meal, while the other dose was consumed immediately before a meal.
The results indicated increased feelings of fullness one hour after the meal and reduced total fat intake during the day, compared to the placebo
However, studies investigating a direct relationship between psyllium and weight loss seem to show mixed results.
One study found that 16 weeks of a calorie-restricted diet paired with three grams of psyllium either twice or three times daily resulted in an average weight loss of 9.9 pounds (4.52 kg) and 10.12 pounds (4.60 kg), respectively
Furthermore, another study showed that psyllium supplementation on its own, as well as paired with a fiber-rich diet, resulted in a significant reduction of weight, body mass index and percentage of body fat (32).
In contrast, other studies did not report significant effects on body weight (19, 33).
Bottom Line: Psyllium aids appetite control by slowing down stomach emptying and reducing appetite. Decreased appetite and calorie intake may support weight loss.
5. It Can Also Lower Cholesterol Levels
Psyllium is able to bind to fat and bile acids, which promotes their excretion from your body.
In the process of replacing these lost bile acids, the liver uses cholesterol to produce more. As a result, blood cholesterol levels decrease
One study reported an increase in bile acid synthesis and lowered LDL (“bad”) cholesterol in 20 individuals treated with 15 grams of psyllium daily for 40 days
In another study, 47 healthy participants experienced a 6% reduction in LDL cholesterol after taking 6 grams each day for six weeks
Furthermore, psyllium can help increase HDL (“good”) cholesterol levels
For instance, taking 5.1 grams twice a day for eight weeks resulted in a decrease in total and LDL cholesterol, as well as an increase in HDL levels in 49 patients with type 2 diabetes
Lastly, one study treated 125 type 2 diabetics with 5-gram doses of psyllium three times a day for six weeks. Participants experienced increases in HDL cholesterol up to 45.7%
Interestingly, a review of 21 studies reported that reductions in total and LDL cholesterol are dose dependent. This means greater results were observed with treatments of 20.4 grams of psyllium per day than 3 grams per day
Bottom Line: Psyllium can lower total cholesterol levels by promoting the removal of bile acids from the body. It has been shown to lower LDL cholesterol and increase HDL cholesterol significantly.
6. It Seems to Be Good for Your Heart
Adding water-soluble fibers like psyllium to your diet might reduce blood triglycerides, blood pressure and the risk of heart disease
One study confirmed that 5 grams of psyllium three times daily for six weeks reduced triglycerides by 26%, compared to the placebo
Moreover, in 40 patients with type 2 diabetes, triglyceride levels were significantly reduced after two months of treatment with psyllium fiber (36).
Furthermore, a diet with an additional 12 grams of fiber from psyllium supplementation reduced systolic blood pressure by 5.9 mmHg in 36 people with high blood pressure (38).
Lastly, another study in obese individuals showed that a 7-gram daily dose for 12 weeks led to a seven percent decrease in blood pressure in the first six weeks of treatment
Bottom Line: Regular intake of psyllium fiber has been linked to reduced blood pressure, lowered triglycerides levels and reduced risk of heart disease.
7. It Has Prebiotic Effects
Prebiotics are non-digestible compounds that nourish intestinal bacteria and help them grow. Psyllium is considered to have prebiotic effects (40, 41).
Although psyllium is somewhat resistant to fermentation, a small portion of psyllium fibers can be fermented by intestinal bacteria. This fermentation can produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which have been linked to health benefits
One study showed that 10 grams twice a day for 12 months increased the production of the SCFA butyrate (45).
Also, because it ferments more slowly than other fibers, it doesn’t increase gas and digestive discomfort.
In fact, treatment with psyllium for four months helped reduce digestive symptoms by 69% in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (46).
Furthermore, a combination of psyllium and probiotics seems to be particularly effective at treating ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease – short-chain fatty acid production and decrease digestive discomfort in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.
Psyllium appears to be well tolerated by most people.
Doses of 5-10 grams taken three times per day are not linked to serious side effects. However, some cramping, gas or bloating may occur (19, 49, 50).
Also, psyllium could delay the absorption of certain medications. Therefore, it’s not recommended to take it with any other medicines.
Although uncommon, some allergic reactions like rashes, itching or trouble breathing can result from ingesting or handling psyllium (51, 52).
Bottom Line: Psyllium does not seem to have many side effects and is well tolerated. However, some allergic reactions may occur in those sensitive to fiber
Psyllium can be consumed in doses of 5-10 grams with meals, at least once per day.
However, when it comes to fiber, more is not always better. The benefits seen in most studies are linked with intakes of 3-20.4 grams per day, and taking more may cause digestive problems
It is important to take it with water and then drink water regularly throughout the day.
As a bulk laxative supplement, 5 grams with a glass of water three times per day is often recommended as a starting point. This can be gradually increased, as tolerated.
It depends on the product how many grams are contained in a teaspoon or tablespoon, but a tablespoon is often recommended as a serving for psyllium husk.
It is best if you follow the dosage instructions on the packaging.
Bottom Line: It is recommended to start psyllium supplementation with 5-gram doses three times a day. Make sure to follow the dosage instructions.
Psyllium is commonly used as a laxative. However, it can also relieve diarrhea and help reduce triglycerides, cholesterol, blood sugar and blood pressure levels.
This fiber supplement can be included in your nutrition regimen and consumed regularly as part of a healthy diet.
If you want to buy psyllium, then there is an excellent selection online with thousands of customer reviews.